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      您所在的位置:首頁 > 科普宣傳 > 流言揭秘:洗衣粉和洗衣液里真的有熒光劑嗎?

      流言揭秘:洗衣粉和洗衣液里真的有熒光劑嗎?

      瀏覽次數:3244信息來源:發布時間:2018-04-25 09:05:00文字大小: 打印

        關于洗衣粉/洗衣液中含有熒光劑的報道總是讓大家擔憂不已,那么,洗衣粉/洗衣液里真有熒光劑嗎?熒光劑對人體有哪些影響呢?有哪些科學的方法能讓我們準確分辨出是否含有熒光劑呢?帶著這些疑問,聽聽化工專家的解答——
       
        1.洗衣粉/洗衣液里真的有熒光劑嗎?
       
        熒光增白劑或稱光學增白劑是一種具有很高量子效率的化合物,在百萬至十萬分之一量級即可對本白色或白色的基質(如紡織品、紙張、塑料、涂料)有效地增白。它能夠吸收波長340~380nm左右的紫外光,發射出波長400~450nm左右的藍光,可有效地彌補白色物質因藍光缺損而造成的泛黃,在視覺上顯著提高白色物質的白度以及亮度。
       
        熒光增白劑本身呈無色或淺黃(綠)色,增白劑在化學結構上具有環狀的共軛體系,例如:二苯乙烯衍生物、苯基吡唑啉衍生物,已經工業化生產的熒光增白劑有15種基本結構類型,近400個化學結構。國內最大類的熒光增白劑為VBL、CXT及造紙用液體增白劑。一般將增白劑分為兩類,一類是水溶性的增白劑,另一類為水不溶性增白劑。前者可用于紙張、涂料、洗衣粉、洗衣液的增白劑。后者可用于化纖、塑料等增白。所以洗衣粉和洗衣液里是含有熒光劑的。
       
        2. 如果有熒光劑,對身體危害有多大?
       
        熒光劑的廣泛使用讓人們開始擔心熒光劑是否會影響人體健康。科學家的研究也逐步向這一領域傾斜。于是,針對熒光劑對人體可能產生的毒性,科學家進行了多個角度的研究,包括對可能產生毒性的劑量的研究、長期接觸的副作用的研究、致敏研究等等。
       
        1999 年,歐洲化學工業協會(CEFIC)和歐洲肥皂洗滌劑協會(AISE)為中心,啟動了“家用清潔產品的人類以及環境風險評估(HERA)”項目。研究結果表明:衣物洗滌劑用熒光增白劑在洗滌劑中長期使用是安全的,不會對人體和環境有負面影響。
       
        2007 年 10 月,日本肥皂洗滌劑工業協會(JSDA)發布了《熒光增白劑對人體健康和環境影響的風險評估結果》報告,其研究結論為:衣物洗滌劑用熒光增白劑對人體與環境都是安全的。
       
        自上世紀 70 年代開始,我國的許多研究人員也曾就熒光增白劑的安全性做了大量研究,并有《合成洗滌劑有毒嗎?》一書出版,肯定了洗滌劑用熒光增白劑的安全性。2008年我國輕工業聯合會出臺了《洗滌劑用熒光增白劑》的企業標準。2016年4月召開的“洗滌用品原料健康風險評估指南”課題專家論證會。專家經過討論,也認定洗滌產品中的熒光增白劑對于消費者是安全的,可放心使用。
       
        3. 如何才能辨別有熒光劑的產品呢?
       
        用紫光燈照射(紫光365),含熒光劑的日用品是亮藍色,不含的是較暗的紫色。嬰兒衣服、紙尿褲、面膜盡量避免購買含有熒光劑的產品,通過正規渠道購買正規廠家的日用品一般是沒有問題的。

      作者:青海省科學廳

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